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Toastmasters Times。演講協會時報
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中華民國演講協會榮獲經理人雜誌最受經理人歡迎三大社團之一。
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得獎的是...And the winner is...

You sat in the audience.  The room was dead quite.  Then the Contest Chair announced the name of the winner: 

 

“And the Champion is…………..Mr. John Johnson”
And you, like many in the audience, went: “Who?………. ” 
And some of the contestants went: “Who?………. ”

Ladies and gentlemen, have you ever been in a contest where the results were different from what you had expected?  Yes, we all had.  To some of us, the judging in a contest is a mystery.  How did the judges pick the winner?  Why the winner you picked was different from the speaker who won?

I have been invited to be a judge in many Toastmasters contests and I have served as the chief judge once in the Region 2 Prepared Speech Contest (a region consists of 9 districts).  Yes, I have been involved with the judging process. The District contest is coming, so the time is right for me to share some of my judging experiences with you. 
 

We just had a judging training in Division A this month.  Three panel members, Marian, L.J., and I had to name three qualities that a person needs in order to be a good judge.  We all agreed on the first two qualities:  Knowledge and Integrity.  My third one was being able to listen.  I forgot what theirs were.  Since our first two are the same, I will talk about these two after I introduce the benefits you can get from serving as a judge. 

I. Benefits
First of all, I would like to answer a frequently asked question: “why should I serve as a judge?  What benefits will I get?”  This is a good question.  I would like people to know the benefits so we may get more judges for our contests.

We joined Toastmasters for one purpose - to learn how to speak in public.  That was the purpose when Dr. Ralph Smedley had when he started TMI.  We put in a lot of time doing speeches to acquire speaking skills.    And the key for improving is to know what are considered good and what are considered bad.    We have to have the knowledge before we can improve.  Serving as a judge forces you to study and acquire the knowledge.  You will understand why a speech is more understood than the others.  Why a speaker can relate to us more than the others.  

The bottom line is: serving as a judge will make you a better speaker and a better evaluator.

It also has a fun daily live application.  As a judge in Toastmasters contests, your only job is to pick a winner - by ranking one against another.  Everything is relative.  How good a speaker is before or after the contest is irrelevant.   So you don’t care how good this speaker really is.  Or you have seen better speakers.  Your job is to rank their performances in the contest no. 1, 2, and 3 and so on with relative scores.  
 

Let me share something fun with you.  I am not a singer, not a professional one anyway and I have no formal music training.  But every week when I watched Star Light Boulevard (星光大道) and after seeing about 2 or 3 singers and their scores, I was able to predict the scores of the rest of the singers by comparing their performances to that of the first two.  I rarely missed.  I guess I could be a judge there too.  Just kept my mouth shut for the first 2 singers and start to score after that.  The problem will only come when I have to make comments.  I guess I could comment on their gestures, eye contacts and vocal varieties….. 
 

Let’s get back to the core task.  As a judge, your job is to pick a winner.  And in the mean time protect the integrity of the TM contests which has a proud long history of holding contests for over 60 years.  To accomplish this task, the two qualities for a good judge are: Knowledge and Integrity.

II. Knowledge
As a judge, the first thing you must do is to STUDY THE JUDGE’S GUIDE.  Each organization has its own priorities.  In Toastmasters, our priority is speaking skills and effectiveness.  So 50% percentage of the score is for Content, 30% for Delivery, only 20% for Language.  Last month, I served as a judge at a National college English contest.  They priority is English, 40%.   If I used our Toastmaster’s judge’s guide for that contest, the winner would surely be different.  So it is really important to follow these guides.

- Under Content, you want to understand what are considered a good speech development, effectiveness, and value. 
- Under Delivery, you want to understand what are considered a good Body Language, Voice and Manner.
- Under Language, you want to understand what are considered Appropriate and Correct.

I think the best ways to develop these sets of knowledge are
1) Learn by reading books, listening to tapes, watching videos of speaking skills and learn from your club members and your mentor.
2) Practice being a judge while you are attending a contest.  Get a scoring guide and pretend that you are one of the judges.  The contest becomes very exciting especially when the winners are announced.  Compare your list to the announced result.  It is fun.  You may be off a lot in the beginning but as time progresses, you will get much better.  
 

3) Get video tapes of the pass District contests and see if you can pick the same winners.  Don’t get discouraged if you do not get all of them correctly.  It is not going to happen that way very often.  That is why we need 9 judges for the District contests to get the best speaker out of the majority of the judges.

4) Get video tapes of the pass District or World contests and study them. 
I believe strongly that our judges who frequently judge at the Division or District levels should view these tapes.
Here is something for these judges to ponder.  My strongest impression at the Fall District conference in DaJia was when I listened to the delegates from that they have a plan to produce a world champion in 10 years.  Why don’t we also plan to send our champion to win at least the Inter District contest?

In order to do that we should know the skills our champion needs when he/she steps out of our district.  I have watched all tapes from 1989 to 2001.  For example, I noticed that the speakers in the world championship contest rarely use props, and very rarely use other race’s accent to speak English (it is consider politically incorrect). 
 
 

It is a challenge to us judges to pick a winner who will represent to go to the next round and win.

III. Integrity

Now in order to protect the integrity of the contest, a judge has to be fair.
Toastmasters contest guides are the most used guides in the world after being practiced for over 60 years.  However, no matter how good the guides are, as long as human is involved, we are going to have unfairness from personal emotions or biases.Therefore in order to select the right winner for the contest, a judge should consider the following:  
 

1) Judges should vote with their heads, not their hearts.   

As a judge, we pick the winner that performed the best at the contest.  We do not vote for the past performance, we do not vote for the potential.  Don’t think: she is a great speaker, she is just off tonight.  The speaker may have dinner with you last week; may   owe you money; may have criticized you too much in an evaluation.   All these are not relevant.  We rank them based on their performances in the contest.  
 

2) Judge should be aware of their biases such as gender, race, political preference, religions, and consciously remove them in the voting decision.
One important method to decrease the impact of these biases is to get more judges.

It is recommended we should get 5 for the Area, 7 for Division and 9 for District contest.  I heard David Brooks said that there were 18 judges in 1990 when he won the world championship.    

 

I have been invited to many club contests.  It is very hard to get judges since there are so many clubs.  Hence, I would recommend using some in house judges.  Remember everyone has different preference.  Instead of insisting on outside judges but only get 3 of them.  It may be better to also use senior club members as judges so the biases will be averaged out.  
 

It time to wrap up.  Ladies and Gentlemen, please recognize the benefits and serve as a judge.  Use your best efforts to acquire the knowledge and cultivate the integrity.  
 

Next time when you are in a contest, and
The winner is……………………:                                         

 

“You!” 


你坐在觀眾之中,空氣中一片寂靜,然後競賽主席宣布得獎者 

 

冠軍得主是……約翰 強生 先生。  

 

而你的反應和大多的觀眾一樣….誰呀!?  

 

而有些參賽者也有一樣的反應….誰呀!?  

 

各位先生女士,你曾經參加過一場比賽當結果出來時跟你本來設想的完全不一樣嗎?是的,我們都曾有這個經驗。對我們來說,如何評斷一場比賽永遠是個謎題,評審是如何選出獎名單?為什麼你所選的跟評審所挑的會不一樣呢

 

我曾經多次受邀擔任演講會比賽評審,我也曾在區域性的比賽中擔任過主審裁判(包括9個不同的分區)。是的,我也曾經參與這段評審的過程。春季大會就要來了,在此,我特別分享我的評審的經驗。  

 

A分部在上個月剛舉辦完裁判教育訓練。我和教育副總會長蕭敏鐶與L.J.各列出三項足以成為一位成功評審所需的條件。我們都贊成我們共同提出的兩項,那就是知識和誠信。我的第三項就是要具有的能力,我忘了他們的第三點是什麼了,不過既然我們有兩項相同,在說明完當評審所能獲得的好處後,我會在下面依續做介紹。 

 

I. 益處 

 

首先,我將回答一項很常碰到的問題,就是我為什麼要當評審? 當評審能給我帶來什麼益處?這是一個相當好的問題。在此我想要讓大家了解當一位評審的好處有那些。我們花很多時間在增進我們的英文演講能力,而讓我們進步的主要原因就是了解什麼是好的什麼是不好的。我們必需有相關的知識才能夠進步。當一位評審就是讓你能夠研究並得到這一份知識,你會了解到為什麼這位演講者的內容會比其他的人更讓人能了解。為什麼這位演講者能夠比一般人更能連結觀眾。 

 

而當一位評審會讓你變成一位更佳的演講者及評論者。 

 

舉一個在日常生活中的例子。在演講會中當評審,你只要用分數高低就能選出第一名。所有東西都是相關的,而一位演講者在比賽前後是不相關的。所以我們不會考慮這一位演講者到底真正實力為如何,只是單純的把參賽者從分數高低排入名次。  

 

跟大家分享一個有趣的經驗,我不是一位專業的歌手,我也從沒參加過專業的唱歌比賽,但每次我在看星光大道時,通常在觀賞完前兩三位參賽者唱完並知道他們的分數後,我就能借由前兩位的分數來預測接下來參賽者的分數。我很少有誤差。我想我也能成為一個好的評審,就坐在那邊閉上嘴巴只給分數,不過問題是,當我要給參賽者建議時,我猜我只能從他們的手勢、眼神和聲音來給他們建議。 

 

讓我們回到我們核心。當一位評審,你的工作就是選出優勝者,而在選擇的同時又要保護演講會60多年來所為人稱道的誠信。完成這一項任務有兩個重點,知識與誠信。 

 

2. 知識 

 

當一位評審首要的任務就是,研讀評審規範。每一個不同的組織都有其不同的優先考慮。在演講會中,我們的首要條件就是演講的技巧和效益。50%的分數在內容,30%的分數在表達能力,只有20%的分數在語言。上個月,我在全國大專英文演講中擔任評審,他們的重點在語言能力,佔了40%,如果我用演講會的評分標準來看他們的比賽,優勝者就會不同了,所以跟隨著評分規範是很重要的。

-
在內容方面,你必需要了解什麼是一篇好的演講,包括其構成、達成效益及價值。 
-在表達能力方面,你必需要了解什麼是好的肢體動作、聲音及態度。 
-在語言方面,你必需要了解什麼是適當性及正確性。

我認為要發展這些知識必須有以下的能力
:
1. 從閱讀中學習、聽錄音帶、觀賞專業的演講者的光碟,從你的社團朋友及你的老師中學習。
2.
從參與一場比賽中練習當一位評審,拿一張評分表並假裝自己是其中一位評審。當比賽結果宣布時比賽就會變得非常刺激,比較你的結果跟評審們的結果,一開始也許會跟評審有所差距,不過當時間一久,你也會有所進步。 
3. 拿出以前的比賽光碟並試著讓自己能否挑出得獎人,如果不能祧出所有的人也不需要沮喪,這並不是常常會發生。這就是比賽中我們為什麼要有9位評審的原因。
4.
拿出以前全國大賽或世界大賽的影片並研究他們。  

 

我認為我們在分區及全國大賽裡的評審應該要看過這些影片。有一件事值得大家思考,當我在看過在去年在大甲舉辦的秋季大賽後,我聽到新加坡希望在10年內要拿到一個全世界總冠軍的計畫,那為什麼我們就不能至少也計畫在分區比賽中也拿一個冠軍呢

 

為了要知道一位臺灣區的冠軍在踏出國門後所需具備的一些演講技巧,我把1989年到2001年的比賽影片都看過一次。舉例來說,我發現在世界總決賽中,演講者都很少使用道具,也很少使用別的種族的口音,因為這會被視為政治上的不尊重  

 

選出臺灣區的代表出國比賽,對於評審來說是一個艱鉅的任務。 

 

III. 正直 

 

為了要維護一場比賽的公正性,評審必須要公平。演講會的準則已經超過60年的時間,然而不論一位評審有多麼傑出,但身為人,我們都會因為本身的感情及偏見造成不公平。因此,為了要選出一位適當的評審,我們必須遵守下列的規定

 

1) 評審必須要用腦袋做出決定,而不是隨心情起舞。 

 

當一位評審,我們的功能在選擇在比賽中現最好的人。我們不會對投給這位參賽者過去的表現,也不會投給她的潛力。不要覺得他/她只是今天失常了,平時他/她是一位很棒的演講者;演講者也許上星期才剛跟你吃過飯;或是他還欠你錢;或是他在評論你演講時說過重話。這些都是和比賽不相關的,我們只根據他們比賽的表現來給分數。 

 

2) 評審必須要小心自己在性別、種族、政治偏好及宗教裡的自我偏見,我們要把這些因素排除在評分範圍之外,而為了消除此一不確定性,所以我們才會有更多的評審評判比賽。 

 

通常在分部層級的比賽建議要有5位評審、分區要有7位評審、全國比賽則要有9位評審。我聽David Brooks說他在1990年得到冠軍時,一共有18位評審。 

 

我曾經受邀至不同比賽中擔任評審,在會內初賽時因為太多分會所以很難找到評審人選。因此,我建議分會內部的人擔任評審,再找出三位分會外的評審。另外,建議以較資深的會員當評審,較能平衡部份的偏見。 

 

該做結尾了。各位先生及女士,請各位要了解當一位評審所能帶來的助益,並盡力獲得足夠知識並培養誠信。 

 

當下次你出現在比賽的時候,冠軍得主就是….. 

 

!

 

 

 

 

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